PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS, ANTI-TRYPANOSOMAL, ANTIMALARIA AND CYTOTOXICITY POTENTIAL OF LEAVES OF ACALYPHA GODSEFFIANA MUELL ARG FROM EASTERN NIGERIA

  • A. K. Asekunowo
  • O.O Okoh
  • O. T Asekun
  • R.W.M Kraus
  • O. B Familoni
Keywords: Acalypha godseffiana, phytochemicals, anti-trypanosomal, cytotoxicity

Abstract

The incidence of death due to untreated trypanosomiasis and malaria in Nigeria and in Sub- Sahara
African at large is on the increase yearly, hence, needs urgent attention. The emergence of drugresistant trypanosomes and plasmodium has necessitated the search for novel therapy through
medicinal plant. In this study, standard methods were adopted in evaluating the effects of solvents
on phytochemical compositions, anti-trypanosomiasis (in-vitro on T.b. brucei), anti-malaria and
cytotoxicity potential (overt method resazurium based raegent) of Acalypha godseffiana (leaves)
was evaluated using standard methods. The qualitative and quantitative analysis revealed the
presence of non-nutritive phytochemicals (%): alkaloid (3.07 ± 0.81), saponin (19.40 ± 0.61),
phytic acid (0.92 ± 0.08) and oxalate (17.07 ± 0.45). The total phenolics results showed that
methanol extract has highest concentration of flavonoid (379.66 mg quercetin g
-1
), while acetone
has the highest concentration of proanthocyanidin (264.67 mg catechin g
-1
) and the highest
concentration of phenolic compounds was found in ethanol extract (208.03 mg gallic g
-1
). Water
extracts has the least of all the total phenolics. The anti-trypanosomal activity revealed that
acetone at 50 µg mL
-1
significantly decrease the viability of the trypanosomes with IC50 of 67.02
µg mL
-1
; while having no significant effect on the viability of the HeLa cells (indicating that the
extract are not significantly cytotoxic). Meanwhile, none of the extracts significantly reduce the
malaria viability at 50 µg mL
-1
. The result revealed that Acalypha godseffiana leave possess antitrypanosomal potential. The finding which is been reported for the first time for the plant can be
incorporated into the pharmacopeia of traditional medicine.

Author Biographies

A. K. Asekunowo

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Lagos, Nigeria

O.O Okoh

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sci. and Agriculture,
University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa

O. T Asekun

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Lagos, Nigeria

R.W.M Kraus

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Rhodes University, South Africa

O. B Familoni

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Lagos, Nigeria

Published
2019-12-24
How to Cite
Asekunowo, A. K., Okoh, O., Asekun, O. T., Kraus, R., & Familoni , O. B. (2019). PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS, ANTI-TRYPANOSOMAL, ANTIMALARIA AND CYTOTOXICITY POTENTIAL OF LEAVES OF ACALYPHA GODSEFFIANA MUELL ARG FROM EASTERN NIGERIA. UNILAG Journal of Medicine, Science and Technology, 7(2), 56-70. Retrieved from http://ujh.unilag.edu.ng/index.php/ujmst/article/view/555